SOCPSY 640: Social Psychology of Attitudes

Fall 2018 Reading List

Week 1 (8/23): Why Study Attitudes?

No Readings


Week 2 (8/30): Measuring Attitudes

Chapter 1: “Introduction to Attitudes and Persuasion” (pp. 3 – 22) in: Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1981). Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. American Psychologist, 54(2), 93-105. [link]

Rocklage, M. D., & Fazio, R. H. (2015). The Evaluative Lexicon: Adjective use as a means of assessing and distinguishing attitude valence, extremity, and emotionality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56, 214-227. [link]


Week 3 (9/6): Attitude Strength

Krosnick, J. A., & Petty, R. E. (1995). Attitude strength: An overview. In R. E. Petty & J. A. Krosnick (Eds.), Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences (pp. 1-24). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Visser, P. S., & Mirabile, R. R. (2004). Attitudes in the social context: The impact of social network composition on individual-level attitude strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 779-795. [link]

Bassili, J. N. (1996). Meta-judgmental versus operative indexes of psychological attributes: The case of measures of attitude strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(4), 637-653. [link]

Barden, J., & Petty, R. E. (2008). The mere perception of elaboration creates attitude certainty: Exploring the thoughtfulness heuristic. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(3), 489-509. [link]


Additional Readings:

Visser, P. S., Bizer, G. Y., & Krosnick, J. A. (2006). Exploring the latent structure of strength-related attributes. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology: Vol. 38 (pp. 1-67). San Diego, CA, US: Elsevier Academic Press. [link]

Sawicki, V., Wegener, D. T., Clark, J. K., Fabrigar, L. R., Smith, S. M., & Bengal, S. T. (2011). Seeking confirmation in times of doubt: Selective exposure and the motivational strength of weak attitudes. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(5), 540-546. [link]


Week 4 (9/13): “Affective” vs. “Cognitive” Processes

Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 513-523. [link]

Rocklage, M. D. and Russell H. F. (2016). On the dominance of attitude emotionality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(2), 259–70. [link]

See, Y. H. M., Petty, R. E., & Fabrigar, L. R. (2013). Affective-cognitive meta-bases versus structural bases of attitudes predict processing interest versus efficiency. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(8), 1111-1123. [link]

Erisen, C., Lodge, M., & Taber, C. S. (2014). Affective contagion in effortful political thinking. Political Psychology, 35(2), 187-206. [link]


Additional Readings:

Crites, S. L., Fabrigar, L. R., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Measuring the affective and cognitive properties of attitudes: Conceptual and methodological issues. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(6), 619-634. [link]

Greifeneder, R., Bless, H., & Pham, M. T. (2010). When do people rely on affective and cognitive feelings in judgment? A review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(2), 107-141. [link]


Week 5 (9/20): Dual Process Models of Persuasion

Luttrell, A. (in press). Dual process models of persuasion. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Goldman, R. (1981). Personal involvement as a determinant of argument-based persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41(5), 847-855. [link]

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Morris, K. J. (1983). Effects of need for cognition on message evaluation, recall, and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 805-818. [link]

Chaiken, S., & Maheswaran, D. (1994). Heuristic processing can bias systematic processing: Effects of source credibility, argument ambiguity, and task importance on attitude judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(3), 460-473. [link]


Additional Readings:

Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1998). Attitude change: Multiple roles for persuasion variables. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 323-390). New York: McGraw-Hill.


Week 6 (9/27): Message Tailoring

Fabrigar, L. R., & Petty, R. E. (1999). The role of the affective and cognitive bases of attitudes in susceptibility to affectively and cognitively based persuasion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(3), 363-381. [link]

Feinberg, M., & Willer, R. (2015). From gulf to bridge: When do moral arguments facilitate political influence? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(12), 1665-1581. [link]

Wheeler, S. C., Petty, R. E., & Bizer, G. Y. (2005). Self-schema matching and attitude change: Situational and dispositional determinants of message elaboration. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 787-797. [link]

Cesario, J., Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Regulatory fit and persuasion: Transfer from "feeling right." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(3), 388-404. [link]


Additional Readings:

Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1998). Matching versus mismatching attitude functions: Implications for scrutiny of persuasive messages. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 227-240. [link]

Han, S., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 326-350. [link]


Week 7 (10/4): Research Proposal Preparation

McGuire, W. J. (1997). Creative hypothesis generating in psychology: Some useful heuristics. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 1-30. [link]


Week 8 (10/11): Cognitive Dissonance

Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58(2), 203-210. [link]

Linder, D. E., Cooper, J., & Jones, E. E. (1967). Decision freedom as a determinant of the role of incentive magnitude in attitude change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6(3), 245-254. [link]

Dickerson, C. A., Thibodeau, R., Aronson, E., & Miller, D. (1992). Using cognitive dissonance to encourage water conservation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(11), 841-854. [link]

Steele, C. M., & Liu, T. J. (1983). Dissonance processes as self-affirmation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(1), 5-19. [link]


Additional Readings:

Cooper, J. M. (2007). Cognitive dissonance: 50 years of a classic theory. SAGE Publications.

Stone, J., & Fernandez, N. C. (2008). To practice what we preach: The use of hypocrisy and cognitive dissonance to motivate behavior change. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(2), [link]


Week 9 (10/18): Metacognitive Processes

Schwarz, N., Bless, H., Strack, F., Klumpp, G., Rittenauer-Schatka, H., & Simons, A. (1991). Ease of retrieval as information: Another look at the availability heuristic. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 195-202. [link]

Tormala, Z. L., Clarkson, J. J., & Henderson, M. D. (2011). Does fast or slow evaluation foster greater certainty? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(3), 422-434. [link]

Tormala, Z. L., & Petty, R. E. (2002). What doesn't kill me makes me stronger: The effects of resisting persuasion on attitude certainty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1298-1313. [link]

Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & Tormala, Z. L. (2002). Thought confidence as a determinant of persuasion: The self-validation hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), 722-741. [link]


Additional Readings:

Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2009). Persuasion: Insights from the self-validation hypothesis. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 69-118. New York: Elsevier. [link]

Wagner, B. C., Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2012). Dimensions of metacognitive judgment: Implications for attitude change. In P. Briñol & K. DeMarree (Eds.), Social Metacognition (pp. 43-61). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.


Week 10 (10/25): Automaticity in Evaluation

Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M. C., & Kardes, F. R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(2), 229-238. [link]

Bargh, J. A., Chaiken, S., Govender, R., & Pratto, F. (1992). The generality of the automatic attitude activation effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(6), 893-912. [link]

Young, A. I., & Fazio, R. H. (2013). Attitude accessibility as a determinant of object construal and evaluation. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 49(3), 404-418. [link]

Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., & Nosek, B. A. (2008). Distinguishing automatic and controlled components of attitudes from direct and indirect measurement methods. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(2), 386-396. [link]


Additional Readings:

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2017). The implicit revolution: Reconceiving the relation between conscious and unconscious. American Psychologist, 72(9), 861-871. [link]


Week 11 (11/1): Theory of Everything: How Implicit and Explicit Coexist

Fazio, R. H. (2007). Attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength. Social Cognition, 25(5), 603-637. [link]

Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & DeMarree, K. G. (2007). The meta-cognitive model (MCM) of attitudes: Implications for attitude measurement, change, and strength. Social Cognition, 25(5), 657-686. [link]

Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2007). Unraveling the processes underlying evaluation: Attitudes from the perspective of the APE model. Social Cognition, 25(5), 687-717. [link]

McConnell, A. R., & Rydell, R. J. (2014). The Systems of Evaluation Model: A dual-systems approach to attitudes. In J. W. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual process theories of the social mind (pp. 204-217). New York: Guilford.


Additional Readings:

Cunningham, W. A., Zelazo, P. D., Packer, D. J., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2007). The iterative reprocessing model: A multilevel framework for attitudes and evaluation. Social Cognition, 25(5), 736-760. [link]

Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107(1), 101-126. [link]


Week 12 (11/8): Attitude-Behavior Consistency

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. [link]

Fazio, R. H., & Towles-Schwen, T. (1999). The MODE model of attitude-behavior processes. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 97-116). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Millar, M. G., & Tesser, A. (1986). Effects of affective and cognitive focus on the attitude–behavior relation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(2), 270-276. [link]

Weigel, R. H., & Newman, L. S. (1976). Increasing attitude-behavior correspondence by broadening the scope of the behavioral measure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33(6), 793-802. [link]


Additional Readings:

Conner, M., & Armitage, C. J. (2006). Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior: A review and avenues for further research. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 1429-1464. [link]

Glasman, L. R., & Albarracín, D. (2006). Forming attitudes that predict future behavior: A meta-analysis of the attitude-behavior relation. Psychological Bulletin, 132(5), 778-822. [link]


Week 13 (11/15): Special Topic I (You decide!)


Week 14 (11/29): Special Topic II (You decide!)




Special Topic A: Advocacy and Persuading Others

Gal, D., & Rucker, D. D. (2010). When in doubt, shout! Paradoxical influences of doubt on proselytizing. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1701-1707. [link]

Teeny, J. D., & Petty, R. E. (2018). The role of perceived attitudinal bases on spontaneous and requested advocacy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 76, 175-185. [link]

Rocklage, M. D., Rucker, D. D., & Nordgren, L. F. (2018). Persuasion, emotion, and language: The intent to persuade transforms language via emotionality. Psychological Science, 29(5), 749-760. [link]

Brady, W.J., Wills, J.A., Jost, J.T., Tucker, J.A., & Van Bavel, J.J. (2017). Emotion shapes the diffusion of moralized content in social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(28), 7313-7318. [link]


Additional Readings:

Forgas, J. P. (2007). When sad is better than happy: Negative affect can improve the quality and effectiveness of persuasive messages and social influence strategies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(4), 513-528. [link]


Special Topic B: Ambivalent Attitudes

van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., & de Liver, Y. N. (2009). The agony of ambivalence and ways to resolve it: Introducing the MAID model. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13(1), 45-61. [link]

Durso, G.R.O., Briñol, P., & Petty, R.E. (2016). From power to inaction: Ambivalence gives pause to the powerful. Psychological Science, 27, 1660-1666. [link]

DeMarree, K. G., Wheeler, S. C., Briñol, P., & Petty. R. E. (2014). Wanting other attitudes: Actual-desired discrepancies predict feelings of ambivalence and ambivalence consequences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 5-18. [link]

Pillaud, V., Cavazza, N., & Butera, F. (2013). The social value of being ambivalent: Self-presentational concerns in the expression of attitudinal ambivalence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(9), 1139-1151. [link]


Additional Readings:

Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2000). Attitudinal ambivalence: A test of three key hypotheses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(1), 1421-1432. [link]

Rydell, R. J., McConnell, A. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2008). Consequences of discrepant explicit and implicit attitudes: Cognitive dissonance and increased information processing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1526-1532. [link]

van Harreveld, F., Nohlen, H. U., & Schneider, I. K. (2015). The ABC of ambivalence: Affective, behavioral, and cognitive consequences of attitudinal conflict. In J. M. Olson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol 52 (pp. 285-324). [link]


Special Topic C: Moral Attitudes

Rozin, P., Markwith, M., & Stoess, C. (1997). Moralization and becoming a vegetarian: The transformation of preferences into values and the recruitment of disgust. Psychological Science, 8(2), 67-73.

Skitka, L. J., Bauman, C. W., & Sargis, E. G. (2005). Moral conviction: Another contributor to attitude strength or something more? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(6), 895-917. [link]

Luttrell, A., Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & Wagner, B. (2016). Making it moral: Merely labeling an attitude as moral increases its strength. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 65, 82–93. [link]

Skitka, L. J., Hanson, B. E., & Wisneski, D. C. (2017). Utopian hopes or dystopian fears? Exploring the motivational underpinnings of moralized political engagement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(2), 177-190. [link]


Additional Readings:

Skitka, L. J. (2010). The psychology of moral conviction. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(4), 267-281. [link]


Special Topic D: Attitude Stability Over Time and Contexts

Luttrell, A., Petty, R. E., & Briñol, P. (2016). Ambivalence and certainty can interact to predict attitude stability over time. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 63, 56-68. [link]

Krosnick, J. A. (1991). The stability of political preferences: Comparisons of symbolic and nonsymbolic attitudes. American Journal of Political Science, 35(3), 547-576. [link]

Boninger, D. S., Brock, T. C., Cook, T. D., Gruder, C. L., & Romer, D. (1990). Discovery of reliable attitudes change persistence resulting from a transmitter tuning set. Psychological Science, 1(4), 268-271. [link]

Gawronski, B., Rydell, R. J., Vervliet, B., & De Houwer, J. (2010). Generalization versus contextualization in automatic evaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(4), 683-701. [link]


Additional Readings:

Cook, T. D., & Flay, B. R. (1978). The persistence of experimentally induced attitude change. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 11 (pp. 1-57). [link]

Gawronski, B., Rydell, R. J., De Houwer, J., Brannon, S. M., Ye, Y., Vervliet, B., & Hu, X. (2018). Contextualized attitude change. In J. M. Olson (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 57 (pp. 1-52). [link]